- Plural of soup
Soup is a food that is made by combining ingredients such as meat or vegetables in stock or hot/boiling water, until the flavor is extracted, forming a broth. It is sometimes confused with stew.
Traditionally, soups are classified into two broad groups: clear soups and thick soups. The established French classifications of clear soups are bouillon and consommé. Thick soups are classified depending upon the type of thickening agent used: purées are vegetable soups thickened with starch; bisques are made from puréed shellfish thickened with cream; cream soups are thickened with béchamel sauce; and veloutés are thickened with eggs, butter and cream. Other ingredients commonly used to thicken soups and broths include rice, flour, and grain.
One of the first types of soups can be dated to about 6000 BC. Boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers (which probably came in the form of pouches made of clay or animal skin) about 9,000 years ago.
HistoryThe word soup originates from "sop", a dish originally consisting of a soup or thick stew which was soaked up with pieces of bread. The modern meaning of sop has been limited to just the bread intended to be dipped.
The word restaurant was first used in France in the 16th century, to describe a highly concentrated, inexpensive soup, sold by street vendors called restaurer, that was advertised as an antidote to physical exhaustion. In 1765, a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in restaurers. This prompted the use of the modern word restaurant to describe the shops.
In America, the first colonial cookbook was published by William Parks in Williamsburg, Virginia, in 1742, based on Eliza Smith's The Compleat Housewife; or Accomplished Gentlewoman's Companion and it included several recipes for soups and bisques. A 1772 cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained an entire chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking; but as new immigrants arrived from other countries, other national soups gained popularity. In particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. In 1794, Jean Baptiste Gilbert Payplat dis Julien, a refugee from the French Revolution, opened an eating establishment in Boston called Restorator, and became known as "The Prince of Soups." The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in 1882 by Emma Ewing: Soups and Soup Making.
Portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time. The Japanese miso is an example of a concentrated soup paste.
Commercial soupCommercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, and today a great variety of canned and dried soups are on the market. Dr. John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the Campbell Soup Company invented condensed soup in 1897. Today, Campbell's Tomato, Cream of Mushroom and Chicken Noodle soups are three of the most popular soups in America. Americans consume approximately 2.5 billion bowls of these three soups alone each year. Vegetable, chicken base, potato, pasta and cheese soups are also available in dry mix form, ready to be served by adding hot water.
Types of soup
Fruit soupsFruit soups are served hot or cold depending on the recipe. Many recipes are for cold soups served when fruit is in season during hot weather. Some like Norwegian 'fruktsuppe' may be served hot and rely on dried fruit such as raisins and prunes and so could be made in any season. Fruit soups may include milk, sweet or savoury dumplings, spices, or alcoholic beverages like brandy or champagne.
Cold fruit soups are most common in Scandinavian, Baltic and Eastern European cuisines while hot fruit soups with meat appear in Middle Eastern, Central Asian and Chinese cuisines. Fruit soups are uncommon or absent in the cuisines of the Americas, Africa and Western Europe. They are also not seen in Japan, Southeast Asia or Oceania.
- Winter melon soup is a Chinese soup, usually with a chicken stock base. It is a savory soup, often including other vegetables and mushrooms. Technically, the winter melon is a fruit, since it is a seed bearing body, but in practical use, it is a vegetable. Winter melon soup is often presented as a whole winter melon, filled with stock, vegetables and meat, that has been steamed for hours. The skin is decoratively cut, so that what is presented is a decorative centerpiece, smaller than a medicine ball, larger than a soccer ball, filled with soup. The flesh of the melon is scooped out with the soup.
Cold soupsCold soups are a particular variation on the traditional soup, wherein the temperature when served is kept at or below room temperature. In summer, they can form part of a dessert tray. Gazpacho is a cold vegetable soup from Spain.
Asian soupsA feature of East Asian soups not normally found in Western cuisine is the use of tofu in soups. Many traditional East Asian soups are typically broths, clear soups, or starch thickened soups. Many soups are eaten and drunk as much for their flavour as well as for their health benefits.
Traditional regional soups
- Ajiaco - A chicken soup from Colombia
- Avgolemono - A Greek chicken soup with lemon and egg
- Bajajou - A soup of Slovakian origin. Ingredients include boiled cow intestines, chicken egg, onion and rice.
- Borscht - A beet-vegetable soup originally from Ukraine and Russia.
- Bouillabaisse - A fish soup from Marseille (Southern France. Also made in other Mediterranean regions. In Catalonia it is called Bullebesa.
- Bourou-Bourou - A vegetable & pasta soup from the island of Easter Island, Greece
- Bisque - A thick, creamy, highly-seasoned soup, classically of pureed crustaceans, of French origin.
- Canja de Galinha- A Portuguese soup of chicken, rice and lemon.
- Caldo verde - A Portuguese minced cabbage soup
- Callaloo - A thick, creamy soup made with okra and, often, crab meat from Trinidad and Tobago
- Cock-a-leekie - Leek and potato soup made with chicken stock, from Scotland
- Clam chowder - two major types, New England Clam Chowder, made with potatoes and cream, and Manhattan Clam Chowder, made with a tomato base.
- Cullen Skink - A fish soup made with Smoked Haddock, potatoes, onions and cream from Scotland
- Egg drop soup, a savory Chinese soup made from cracking eggs into boiling water or broth.
- Etrog, a fruit soup made up from the citron used in Jewish Ritual at the feast of Succoth, is eaten by Ashkenazi Jews at Tu Bishvat.
- La Sopa de Pene - Colloquially referred to as "cock soup", the soup is primarily made by boiling a bull's penis. Usually seasoned with white pepper and traditionally topped with soft cheeses.Eaten in Ecuador during summer and early autumn. The soup is usually eaten for boys who are going through a coming of age ceremony.
- Maryland Crab Soup - A soup made of vegetables, blue crab, and Old Bay Seasoning in a tomato base. From Maryland, USA.
- Faki soupa - A Greek lentil soup, with carrots, olive oil, herbs and possibly tomato sauce or vinegar.
- Fanesca - A traditional cod soup from Ecuador
- Fasolada - Traditional Greek bean soup
- Fufu and Egusi soup - A traditional soup from Nigeria made with vegetables, meat, fish, and balls of ground melon seed
- Goulash- A Hungarian soup of beef, paprika and onion.
- Gumbo - A traditional Creole soup from the American South, thickened with okra pods.
- Íslensk Kjötsúpa - Traditional Icelandic meat soup made with lamb and vegetables.
- Kharcho - A Georgian soup of lamb, rice, vegetables and a highly spiced boullion.
- Lagman - A traditional Uzbek soup of pasta, vegetables, ground lamb and numerous spices.
- Lan Sikik - A Thai soup made with noodle, dried fish and tomato extract.
- Lentil soup - A soup popular in the Middle East and Mediterranean.
- Leek soup - A simple soup made from Leeks popular in Wales during St. David's Day
- Menudo - A traditional Mexican soup with tripe and hominy.
- Minestrone - An Italian vegetable soup
- Miso soup - A Japanese soup made from fish broth and fermented soy
- Mulligatawny Soup - An Anglo-Indian curried soup
- Patsás - A Greek tripe soup
- Snert - A thick pea soup, eaten in the Netherlands as a winter dish, traditionally served with sliced sausage. Also known as erwtensoep.
- Philadelphia Pepper Pot Soup - A Philadelphia, Pennsylvania specialty, traditionally made with tripe.
- Psarosoupa - A Greek fish soup. There are various versions of it and could be made with a variety of fish types.
- Phở- A Vietnamese beef/chicken soup with scallion, welsh onion, cherred ginger, wild coriander (Eryngium foetidum), basil, cinnamon, star anise, cloves and black cardamom.
- Revithia - A Greek chickpea soup
- Scotch Broth
- She-crab soup - from Charleston, South Carolina, a creamy soup made with blue crab meat and crab roe.
- Shchav, a sorrel soup in Polish, Russian and Yiddish cuisines
- Solyanka - A cabbage soup from Russia
- Sour soup (fish soup) - A Vietnamese dish made with rice, fish, various vegetables, and in some cases pineapple.
- Tarator - A Bulgarian cold soup made from yogurt and cucumbers
- Trahana soup, from Greece
- Tomato soup (pomidorowa) - Traditional polish soup made of tomato concentrate
- Vichyssoise - A French-style soup invented by a French chef at the Ritz Hotel in NYC. French cold purée soup with potatoes, leeks, and cream.
- Waterzooi - A Belgian fish soup
- Żurek - A Polish wheat soup with sausages often served in a bowl made of bread.
Soup as a figure of speechIn the English language, the word "soup" has developed several phrasal uses.
- Alphabet soup is a term often used to describe a large amount of acronyms used by an administration, and has its roots in a common tomato-based soup containing pasta shaped in the letters of the alphabet.
- Primordial soup is a term used to describe the organic mixture leading to the development of life.
- A soup kitchen is a place that serves prepared food of any kind to the homeless.
- Pea soup describes a thick or dense fog.
- "Soup legs" is an informal or slang term used by athletes to describe fatigue or exhaustion.
- "Stone soup" is a popular children's fable.
- Duck soup is a term to describe a task that is particularly easy.
- Word soup refers to any collection of words that is ostensibly incomprehensible.
- Tag soup further refers to poorly coded HTML
- Soup Fire! can be used an expression of surprise.
- Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Near a Thousand Tables: A History of Food (2002). New York: Free Press ISBN 0-7432-2644-5
- Larousse Gastronomique, Jennifer Harvey Lang, ed. American Edition (1988). New York: Crown Publishers ISBN 0-609-60971-8
- Morton, Mark. Cupboard Love: A Dictionary of Culinary Curiosities (2004). Toronto: Insomniac Press ISBN 1-894663-66-7
- The Mighty Boosh. Soup, Soup, A Tasty Soup, Soup (2005).
soups in Arabic: حساء
soups in Bulgarian: Супа
soups in Catalan: Sopa
soups in Czech: Polévka
soups in Danish: Suppe
soups in German: Suppe
soups in Spanish: Sopa
soups in Esperanto: Supo
soups in French: Soupe
soups in Scottish Gaelic: Brot
soups in Galician: Sopa
soups in Indonesian: Sup
soups in Icelandic: Súpa
soups in Italian: Minestra
soups in Hebrew: מרק
soups in Kinyarwanda: Isupu
soups in Latvian: Zupa
soups in Lithuanian: Sriuba
soups in Limburgan: Sop
soups in Dutch: Soep (voedsel)
soups in Dutch Low Saxon: Soop
soups in Japanese: スープ
soups in Norwegian: Suppe
soups in Norwegian Nynorsk: Suppe
soups in Narom: Souope
soups in Polish: Zupa
soups in Portuguese: Sopa
soups in Russian: Суп
soups in Simple English: Soup
soups in Serbian: Супа
soups in Finnish: Keitto
soups in Swedish: Soppa
soups in Tagalog: Sabaw
soups in Turkish: Çorba
soups in Yiddish: זופ
soups in Samogitian: Zopė
soups in Chinese: 汤